THE ORDER OF THINGS, OR THE AGE OF ANIMAL HEROES
THE FIRST HOGAN[45]



Continued From Previous Page

For Dook oslid, the mountain of the West, the plan was made.
The plan was made in the home of the First Man.
The planning took place on the top of the Beautiful Goods.
They planned how a strong Abalone Shell Boy should be formed;
How the Abalone Shell Boy should be formed, and
How the Chief of the Mountain should be made.
How he should be made like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful.

For Debe'ntsa, the mountain of the North, the plan was made.
The plan was made in the home of the First Man.
The planning took place on the top of the Beautiful Goods.
They planned how a strong Jet Boy should be formed;
How the Jet Boy should be formed, and
How the Chief of the Mountain should be made.
How he should be made like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful.

For Dzil na'odili, the Center Mountain, the plan was made.
The plan was made in the home of the First Man.
The planning took place on the top of the Beautiful Goods.
They planned how a strong Earth's Breath should be formed;
How the Banded Rock should be used, and
How the Chief of the Mountain should be made.
How he should be made like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful.

For Chol'i'i, the Sacred Mountain, the plan was made.
The plan was made in the home of the First Man.
The planning took place on the top of the Beautiful Goods.
They planned how the strong Earth's Heart should be formed;
How the Mixed Chips should be used, and
How the Sacred Mountain should be made.
How she should be made like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful.

[73. Informant's note: Matthews recorded the Mountain Top Chant; also another Mountain Chant, Dzil ki'ji
jikae'shash na'dle, relates the metamorphoses of the bear and the horned rattlesnake (Matthews, 1887, pp.
385-467).]

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The Ceremony that has come down to us from this story is called the Mountain Chant.[74] There are about a
hundred sections to this one great chant. There are many songs, and they are all beautiful. The words of the
songs tell of the mountain people: the bear, the deer, the squirrel, and of all the others.

These persons were asked how many plants they brought with them from the first worlds, and how many
seeds were collected and planted in the mountains. And after the mountain people came the people of the
Plains. They were asked to bring forth the seeds of their plants. All that is seen growing on the Plains they
brought with them. Next came the river people. They were asked about the willows, and the otter said that he
had brought them with him. The beaver brought the cottonwoods, and also a stone which he chipped and
scattered along the rivers and over the mesas, and they became the river boulders found today. First Man
asked who had brought the cliff rocks. The little gray birds that live in those rocks, tse na'olch oshilchi', the
rock wren, said that they had brought them. They said that they had ground it into powder and sprinkled it
here and there and that the cliffs had sprung into being.

After First Man and First Woman had made and dressed the six mountains they found that there was still a
little earth left in the medicine bag, so Tseya kan', the Hog Back Mountains, and the mesa south of them were
formed. They were to be the lungs of the earth and the big diaphragm muscle separating the heart from the
stomach.

The last of the earth was used to form Nltsa dzil, Strong Rain Mountain, the Carrizos. They made this great
mountain with its legs to the South and its head to the North. It has for its dress Strong Goods, meaning many
rocks for its clothing. This mountain has three other names: it is called Yolgai dzil, Bead Mountain; Nil tliz dzil,
Mixed Chips Mountain; and Ta di din dzil, Strong Pollen Mountain. It holds the pollen of all the plants. And it
was planned by First Man that the people should use this mountain, so he made it a strong mountain. First
Man and First Woman set arrows around it to guard it. These are the rock formations such as Shiprock.

And after this was done and all was finished, the earth and all that was on it was stretched in the four
directions so that there would be room for all. The people were told that they were to use the six sacred
mountains indicated as their chief mountains. The place of emergence from the lower worlds was where it is
now. The people could always see their great mountains above the lower mesa lands. When everything was
finished a smoke was prepared for the mountains and the chants were sung.

[74. Matthews (1887, pp. 455-464).]

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MOUNTAIN CHANTS [75] [76] [77]
Chant I--It Stands Out
The mountain to the East is Sis na' jin.
It is standing out.
The strong White Bead is standing out,
A living mountain is standing out,
The Chief of the Mountain is standing out.
Like the Most-High-Power he is standing out,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful he is standing out.

It stands out,
It stands out,
It stands out.

The mountain to the South is Tso dzil.
It is standing out.
The strong Turquoise is standing out,
A living mountain is standing out,
The Chief of the Mountain is standing out,
Like the Most-High-Power he is standing out,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful he is standing out.

It stands out [repeated three times],

The mountain to the West is Dook oslid.
It is standing out.
The strong White Shell is standing out,
A living mountain is standing out,
The Chief of the Mountain is standing out.
Like the Most-High-Power he is standing out,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful he is standing out,

It stands out, . . .

The mountain to the North is Debe'ntsa.
It is standing out.
The strong Jet is standing out,
A living mountain is standing out,
The Chief of the Mountain is standing out.
Like the Most-High-Power he is standing out,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful he is standing out.

It stands out, . . .

The mountain in the Center is Dzil na'odili.
It is standing out.
The strong Beautiful Goods is standing out,
A living mountain is standing out,
The Chief of the Mountain is standing out.
Like the Most-High-Power he is standing out,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful he is standing out.

It stands out, . . .

[75. Matthews (1887, pp. 385-467); Songs of Sequence (pp. 455-464).

76. Matthews (1885, pp. 271-274).

77. Recorder's note: Matthews gives it as "It Looms Up." Informant's note: The Mountain Chant "It Stands out"
to Chant No. 1.]

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The Sacred Mountain is Chol'i'i.
It is standing out.
The strong Mixed Chips are standing out,
A living mountain is standing out,
The Chief of the Mountain is standing out.
Like the Most-High-Power he is standing out,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful he is standing out.

It stands out, . . .

Chant II--You See It [78]
Looking at the far distant horizon
You see it.
The strong White Bead rises,
You see it on the far distant horizon.
The Chief of the Mountain rises,
You see him.
Like the Most-High-Power you see him,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful you see him.
It stands out in the far distance,

You see it,
You see it,
You see It.

(In the six verses the names of the different mountains' trimmings are changed as in the former chant.)

Chant III--It Rises Above the Earth
Now it rises in the far distance,
It rises above the earth.
The strong White Bead rises,
You can see it on the far distant horizon.
The Chief of the Mountain rises,
He rises above the earth.
Like the Most-High-Power he rises above the earth,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful he rises above the earth.

It rises above the earth,
You see it, you see it, you see It.

(As in Chant II the mountain's trimmings are changed in the verses.)

Chant IV--The Chant of the Beautiful Mountains of the East and West [79]
1--Hasjelti's song
Mountains of the East,
The Dawn Mountain,
The White Corn Mountain,
The Beautiful Goods Mountain,
The All-Water Mountain,
The Pollen Mountain.

[78. Informant gave Chants II and III later.

79. Interpreter gave Chant IV, parts I and 2, later.]

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The people walk over me.
The old men all say to me, I am beautiful.
The people walk over me.
The old women all say to me, I am beautiful.
The people walk over me.
The young men all say to me, I am beautiful.
The people walk over me.
The young women all say to me, I am beautiful.
The people walk over me.
The children all say to me, I am beautiful.
The people walk over me.
The chiefs all say to me, I am beautiful.

2--Hasjohon's Song
Mountains of the West,
The Twilight Mountain,
The Yellow Corn Mountain,
The Mixed Chips Mountain,
The Little Water Mountain,
The Pollen Mountain.

Etc.

Chant V--The Chant of Hasjelti Boy and Hasjohon Boy[80}
1--The Dawn or Morning Chant
Starting out towards the Dawn Mountain,
Starting out towards the White Corn Mountain,
Starting out towards the Mixed Water Mountain,
Starting out towards the Pollen Mountain,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful Boy,
He starts out.
All is beautiful before him as he starts out.

Going out to the Dawn Mountain,
Going out to the White Corn Mountain,
Going out to the Mixed Water Mountain,
Going out to the Pollen Mountain,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful Boy,
He goes forth.
All is beautiful behind him.
All is beautiful before him.

He went to the Dawn Mountain,
He went to the White Corn Mountain,
He went to the Mixed Water Mountain,
He went to the Pollen Mountain,
Like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful Boy,

[80. Interpreter's rendition of Chant V, both (1) the Dawn or Morning Chant, and (2) the Twilight or Evening
Chant.]

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He went to them.
All was beautiful before him,
All was beautiful behind him,
All was beautiful above him,
All was beautiful below him,
All was beautiful around him,
As he went to them.

2--The Twilight or Evening Chant
[This is the same except for the names of the mountains:]

Starting out towards the Twilight Mountain,
Starting out towards the Yellow Corn Mountain,
Starting out towards the Mixed Chips Mountain,
Starting out towards the Pollen Mountain. . . .

Chant VI--The Chant Sung when Hasjelti Had a Bad Dream[81]
All is beautiful where I dream.
All is beautiful where I dream.
I dream amid the Dawn and all is beautiful.
I dream amid the White Corn and all is beautiful.
I dream amid the Beautiful Goods and all is beautiful.
I dream amid the Mixed Waters and all is beautiful.
I dream amid all the Pollens and all is beautiful.
I am the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful
And I dream that all is beautiful.

[The same chant is used for Hasjohon, but Twilight, Yellow Corn, Mixed Chips, Little Water and the Pollens are
used.]

Chant VII--The Chant of the Plants
[This is used with the Third Sand Painting]

Now it is planned, in the East is the Corn.
Now it is planned, in the South is the Bean.
Now it is planned, in the West is the Pumpkin.
Now it is planned, in the North is the Tobacco.

2d. verse begins: Now it is made. . .
3d. verse begins: Now they dress it. . .
4th. verse begins: Now it is dressed.

THE COMING OF DEATH AND LIFE
Now the earth, which had been stretched, became solid, and the rivers flowed. Trees grew along the banks of
the rivers, and flowers grew at the foot of the mountains with the rocks and the cliffs and other trees above
them. The Mother Earth was very beautiful.

[81. Interpreter gave Chants VI and VII.]

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But just when everything on the earth was good and beautiful the people saw the first death. They
remembered what the Sun had said. He had claimed the lives of all the living in payment for his light. The
people wondered where the dead would go. "Is there another country?" they asked among themselves.

Now there came two beings called Alke'na ashi, Made Again, who looked like the Yei.[82] They were sent to
the East to look for the dead body. They returned and said that they had not seen it. They were sent to the
South and they brought back the same report. They were sent to the West and the North without success.
They were asked to look into the Yellow World where they had come from. As they were about to start they felt
the flesh around their knees pinched; but they went on. They had a strange feeling of sound, like a rale, in
their throats. They felt rather than heard this sound, but they went on. Then there was a sensation in their
noses, like an odor, but they went on to the place of emergence, and they looked down. Way below them
there was someone combing his hair. He looked up and gave a little whistle, and they both experienced a
strange feeling.

When the Alke'na ashi returned from the lower world they said that they had seen the spirit of the one who
had died. They told just what they had felt and seen.

They warned the others saying that they must not try to return to the Country of the Past for it was not well to
experience such sensations nor to see such things; and if in the future someone were to hear a whistle when
no one was about that whistle came from an evil source, and a prayer should be said at once. If anyone
should be so unfortunate as to see their double, or the form of a near relative in a vision, it would be a sign
that dangerous things were about to befall them. Should this happen a chant must be held and prayers said in
order to ward off the trouble.

The First People thought a great deal about this person's dying.

It had been First Man's and First Woman's plan to have everyone live forever. There was to have been no
death. They could not understand this thing; and they were not satisfied.

First Man and First Woman got a piece of hard, black wood.[83] They made a smooth pole of it, and pointed it,
as an arrow is pointed.

[82. Interpreter's note: The Alke'na ashi were originally the White Corn Girl and the Yellow Corn Girl, children
of the White Shell Girl and the Wolf. They had been killed; but after twelve years the Holy Ones revived them,
hence their name meaning Made Again. But they were revived as a boy and a girl. It is said that the Sun has
their masks; and that their faces are never represented. This story is one of black magic; and these two are
connected with death and evil.

Matthews (1897, p. 76): "To behold the dead is dangerous." Franciscan Fathers (1910, pp. 453-456).

83. Interpreter's note: The petrified log is the fetish of the Goddess of Death.]

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Its length was the distance from a tall man's fingertip to his heart. After this pole was fashioned they dressed it;
and they carried it on their shoulders to a lake. It was their plan to cast it into the water, and if the pole floated
to the shore there would be no death; but if it sank down into the water, then death would remain. Now just as
they raised it to cast it into the water the Coyote came to them. They saw that he carried a big stone ax. As
they cast the pole into the water he threw the stone ax, saying: "Unless this stone ax returns to the surface
there will be death." Now the stone ax remained in the lake, but the pole which First Man and First Woman had
shaped and dressed returned to the shore. So it was decided that, although there would be death among the
people of the earth, sometimes the very ill would recover because the log had floated back to the shore.

OLD AGE AND ILLNESS
First Man and First Woman had planned what was best for the sky and the earth and the people. And in the
beginning whatever they planned became a fact; but after the Coyote interfered there were others who wished
to have a part in the scheme of how the people should live.

The people's hair was to remain black. No one thought that the beings were to grow old. But there came a bird
with a white head who said: "My grandchildren, look here, I am turning gray; I am growing old." This person
was tsish'gai, the nut hatch; and after he had spoken old age descended upon many and their hair turned
gray.

The people of the earth had been given strong white corn for teeth. They were made strong, solid and clean;
and the plan was that they should remain so forever. But there came Old Man Gopher, Hastin Naazisi, with his
face badly swollen for he was in great pain. "Oh, my grandchildren," he groaned, "I have a toothache. Pull my
bad teeth for me." So they pulled the bad teeth, and only two remained that were really good. After that time it
became a fact that people suffered from toothache, that teeth became old and worn.

So far there had been no babies born as they are now born. This was the plan. But a small bird with a red
breast came and said: "My grandchildren, look at the blood that comes from me." It was a monthly occurrence
after that, and it came to all female beings. The bird was chishgahi, the robin.

THE PLAN, OR ORDER OF THINGS
There was a plan from the stars down. The woman's strength was not to be as great as the man's strength.
They could not attend to the planting and harvesting as the men could, therefore men would

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be worth more than women. And the plan was that women would propose marriage to men; but the Coyote
came and said: "Brothers, listen, I have just married a woman." Again he spoiled their plan. Men propose
marriage to women; but because of the older plan there are still cases where women go after men. Then not
long after that, that which the bird, chishgahi, said came true; but they still thought it unwise to have babies
born in the new way. Just then the Coyote came and said: "Brothers, I have a little baby."

Then they planned how a husband and a wife should feel toward each other, and how jealousy should affect
both sexes. They got the yucca and the yucca fruit, and water from the sacred springs, and dew from all the
plants, corn, trees, and flowers. These they gathered, and they called them tqo alchin, sacred waters. They
rubbed the yucca and the sacred waters over the woman's heart and over the man's heart. This was done so
they would love each other; but at the same time there arose jealousy between the man and the woman, his
wife.

After that they planned how each sex would have its feeling of passion. A medicine was made and it was given
to the man and to the woman. This medicine was for the organs of sex. The organ of the man would whistle;
and then the organ of the woman would whistle. When they heard this each organ gave a long, clear whistle.
After that they came together and the sound of the whistle was different. That is why the voices of the young
boy and maiden are different; and it is why their voices change.

They planned that the rainbow should be used for a path whenever there was a deep canyon to cross; and it
was to be thrown over a river and used as a bridge.

The gopher was told to remain hidden from the sun because he had caused toothache. That is why he stays
down in the earth and seldom ventures out during the daytime.

First Man called the birds to him and said: "You who have wings, go to the mountains for your food and good
living." So they went to the mountains. To each bird was given a name, and to each was given the directions of
his way of living.

Then all the different types of lizards came. They were sent to the cliffs and told to make their homes among
the rocks; and to every type of lizard was given a name.

First Man called the beavers and the otters and the underwater animals; and they were given their names and
sent to the rivers and waters that would become their homes.

First Man and First Woman called the chiefs. First they called the wolf. They told him that, although he was a
chief, he had done wrong, he had stolen. They told him that he should be called ma'itso,

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the big wanderer. "You shall travel far and wide over the face of the earth," they said.

The snake was called. They told him that because he could not travel the year round he would be given a bag
of medicine, and, as he had no place to which he could tie it, they put it in his mouth. First Man gave this to
him and told him that should the snake wish to harm someone he should swell this poison and cast it out. But
for its possession he must pay by traveling but 6 months of the year.

Then First Man called another chief. "Come here, old man," he said. When this being came, First Man said
that he should be named ma'i, the coyote.[84] But the coyote got angry and said: "Such a name!" And he
declared that he would not have it; and that he would leave; but First Man called him back and told him that he
would also be known as Atse'hashke', First Angry. After that the coyote felt better. He thought that he had a
great name given him, and he went happily away, for he was told that he would know all the happenings on the
face of the earth.

The bear was the next chief to be called. He was given a name but be was not satisfied. He became so angry
that First Man used the word "shash" to quiet him. The bear repeated it four times, and he said that it had a
strange sound, and when one said it aloud one had an awesome feeling. So he went off well content that
"shash" should be his name.

Up to this time all beings were people and could remove their coat forms at will;[85] but because of wrongdoing
they were made to keep their coats; and they were made to keep to their kind and to live among themselves in
different parts of the earth.

When all the birds and animals had started out on their way, First Man called one little, gray bird back. It was
tse na'olch'oshi, the little canyon wren, who had carried the cliff rock up from the Yellow World. First Man told
him that, since he had been responsible for the cliffs he should make his home among the cliff rocks. And
should anyone ever harm him he would have the power of getting even with him. That is why falling rocks
sometimes harm people or animals.

All the people that First Man and First Woman named and sent forth now live on the earth. This is the way
they planned the order of things.

[84. Recorder's note: Ma'i, the Coyote, is not to be confused with the Great Coyote or Wolf. This is the Coyote
called First Angry or the Scolder, and appears In Zuni and other myths.

85. This to the same in Zuni myths, etc.]

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