|THE ORDER OF THINGS, OR THE AGE OF ANIMAL HEROES
THE FIRST HOGAN
Hash'ke ba'jilte, a powerful medicine man of the Blue Bird Clan, gave
many of the origin myths to Sandoval.
First Man planned to build a home.
He dug a shallow pit in the earth and raised the poles. For the main poles First Man used the Black Bow, which
is called Altqin dilqil. There were two parts of this Black Bow, and two other parts, one cut from the Male
Reed and one from the Female Reed. The other poles were those at hand. Then the whole structure was
covered with earth and grass, and the first dwelling was built. First Woman ground white corn into meal, and
they powdered the poles with the meal, and they sprinkled it inside the dwelling from East to West.
First Main said as he sprinkled the cornmeal: "May my home be sacred and beautiful, and may the days be
beautiful and plenty."
Today there is a hogan ceremony, and a song is sung as the poles are raised.
Now after the first hogan was built and they had seen four dark and four light clouds rising First Man said that
they were tired and that they must rest. He asked if anyone had brought the river stones. The badger said that
he had five. First Man said that he would heat four and leave one. He had a plan to build two sweat houses
out of the remaining poles.
There are four parts of a chant sung at this time. It is the Sweat House Chant. One part is like this:
He made it. He made it. He made it.
At the place where the people emerged from the underworld,
Near the Lake of Emergence, he made it.
He made it with the female wood and the male wood.
He made it with the Black Mesa rock.
He made it with the hard river rock.
He made it with the help of The-Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Fearful.
[45. Informant's note: The first began was not like the hogans of today.
Franciscan Fathers (1910, p. 327); Nusbaum (1922.)
46. Informant's note: The Dark or Black Bow is symbolic of the Slayers of the Enemies. It is a symbol of the
overthrow of evil.
47. Informant's note: The Male and the Female Reeds are the symbols of the male and the female principles.
48. Informant's note: The building of the sweat house is very special, details will be given later.]
Many chants are sung during this ceremony--the Horned Toad Chant, the Twin Brothers Chant, the Bear
Chant, and the Mirage Stone Chant.
THE CREATION OF THE SUN AND MOON
After the hogan was finished everyone rested.
The dwelling was occupied by Atse'hastqin, First Man, and Atse'esdza, First Woman. All their belongings were
piled inside. The woman lay with her feet to the West, and the man lay with his feet to the East. Their heads
crossed and their thoughts mingled, and these thoughts were sacred.
Now in the hogan there were also two other persons: Atse'ashki, First boy, and Atse'ataed, First Girl. They
were not the children of First Man and First Woman, but the Turquoise Boy and the White Shell Girl who had
come with the others from the underworld. Now First Boy lay to the south side of the hogan, and First Girl to
the north. They lay down when they saw the period of darkness descending, and they listened. First Man and
First Woman whispered together, but First Boy could not distinguish the words one from another. Each time
the Dark Cloud covered them the four lay down, and First Man and First Woman whispered.
This happened four times, then First Boy stood and said: "What is this secret thing that you plan? We have
lost our sleep through four dark spaces."
"It is not an unwise thing that we plan," said First Man. "We plan for the time which is to come, how we shall
live, and how the people will live upon this earth. It is nothing but that, my child." And First Woman repeated
what her husband had said. When First Boy heard this he agreed that it was better that the two should
continue their planning.
First Man and First Woman whispered together during many nights. They planned with the help of the All-Wise-
Coyote-Who-Was-Formed-in-the-Water. The three devised a scheme that would meet the problems that
would later come to pass. They planned that there should be a sun, and day and night." They said that the
Coyote, called First Angry, had brought unhappiness and spoiled their life
[49. Mindelleff (1898, pt. 2, pp. 475-517); Stevenson (1891, pp. 239-242, 273-275); Cushing (1923, p. 163).
Recorder's note: The hogan faces the East. Hebrews of antiquity fronted their edifices to the East.
50. Informant's note: Some medicine men say that the Turquoise Boy was without sex, or a hermaphrodite.
Stevenson (1891, p. 275) Alexander (1916, pp. 166-169, and note 31, p. 286) Matthews (1897, p. 80).
51. Alexander (1916, p. 155) Matthews (1897, pp. 80-81); Franciscan Fathers (1912, p. 36): The Black Yei or
Fire God, Hashch'esh'zhini; Parsons (1923, pp. 135-162).]
down below, and that he was not the proper person to have with them with this time. He should be kept away.
They spread a beautiful buckskin on the ground. This was the skin of a deer not killed by a weapon. On
the buckskin they placed a perfect turquoise, round like the sun. It was as large as the height of an average
man if he stretched his arm upward. They stood 12 tail feathers from the eagle around it, and also 12 tail
feathers from the flicker. On the great turquoise they marked a mouth and nose and eyes. They made a
yellow streak below the mouth on top of the chin.
Now, although they had stationed four guards to he on the lookout for the Coyote, Atse'hashke', he came and
asked them what they were doing. They told him: "Nothing whatsoever". He said: "So I see," and went away.
After that they visited the different places where there was fire under the earth. In one of these places they
found Hashche'zhini, the Black Yei, who is also called the Fire God. He was asked to use his fire to heat the
great turquoise which they had planned to use as their sun.
They placed a perfect white shell on the buckskin below the turquoise that was to become the sun. This great,
perfect, white shell was to become the moon. First Man planned to heat it with the first crystal that he had used
for his fire.
By this time they had posted two circles of guards around the place where they were planning; but even with
this precaution the Coyote came to them. He appeared in their midst and said: "This must be something that
you are planning." But they assured him that he saw nothing; they said that they were just sitting there. And
again the Coyote left them. First Man called the guards together and asked them why they had let the one
whose name was Atse'hashke' pass. They said that they had not seen the Coyote. First Man then placed
three circles of guards around the sacred buckskin.
The Holy Ones asked the Turquoise Boy to enter the great, perfect turquoise that was to become the sun; and
they asked the White Shell Girl to enter the great, perfect, white shell that was to become the moon. The
Turquoise Boy was to carry a whistle made from the Male Reed. This whistle had 12 holes in it, and each time
that the Turquoise Boy would blow on his whistle the earth would move one month in time. The White Shell Girl
was also to carry a whistle. It was made from the Female Reed, and with it she should move the tides of the
[52. Interpreter's note: Medicine men prize highly the skin of a deer not killed by a weapon. A deer struck by a
car in the winter of 1935 brought the Navaho who found it two cows In exchange.]
Just as this was planned the Coyote came among them and said: "well, my cousins, there is something that
you are planning. What is it?"
First Man answered: "We are planning nothing at all. We are just sitting here."
"Very well," said the Coyote, "I wanted to know, that was all." And he went away.
After he had gone they planned the 12 months of the year.
THE TWELVE MONTHS OF THE YEAR
October is the first month of the year and of winter, which is called qai. October's name is Gah'ji, meaning
Back-to-Back, or the Parting-of-the-Seasons. It is the time when the deer come, the time to hunt. Nalashi, the
tarantula, is its feather or headdress. Nlchi achi, little cold, is its heart. The blue hanging haze is over this
FIGURE I.--The Calendar Stone: The plan of the twelve months of the year. A, Sun; B, Moon. 1, January; 2,
February; 3, March; 4, April; 5, May; 6, June; 7, July; 8, August; 9, September; 10, October; 11, November; 12,
December. (The drawing of the Calendar Stone was given by Sandoval.)
shell corn, thrash, and store food f or the winter. It is the month when mountain sheep breed.
November is the second month. It is called Nlchi'tso'si, the month or Time of Slender Winds. Its heart is
Nlchi'tso'si, Slender Wind. Its feather is Hastin sakai (Orion), the Old Man with Legs Spread. It is also a month
for hunting. The women gather certain grass and plant seeds on warm days, which later they dry and grind
into flour for the different bread cakes eaten in winter. The antelope breed.
The third month of the year is December. It is called Nlchi'tso', the Great Wind. Its heart is also the Great
Wind. Its feather is
[53 Recorder's note: The drawing of the Calendar Stone was checked by Sam Ahkeah and Gerald Nallor.
Informant's and interpreter's note: First Man made the marks on the buckskin. Later the people of Blue House
had the Calendar Stone in their keeping. A medicine woman guarded it. The story of the sun and the moon
and the 12 months were upon it. Hastin Tlo'tsi hee's (Sandoval's) ancestress, Ezdzan at'a', the Hopi woman,
was the guardian of this Stone. Later it was hidden near the Carriso Mountains.
64 Recorder's note: Edible seeds known to the Navaho. (Any of the genus Chenopodium.)]
Atse'etso, the Big First One. Digging sticks are prepared in this month. They are made with the stone ax;
and the wood is dried in the dwellings so that when the planting time comes the sticks will be smooth and well
seasoned. The women make moccasins, and they tan the hides from the hunting season. It is the time to
begin to tell the sacred stories. The deer breed.
January is the fourth month. Its name is Zas'ntl'tis, Crusted Snow. Its heart is Tqin, Ice. Akaisda'hi, Which-
Awaits-the-Dawn, is its feather. This is the Milky Way. The young men hear the sacred stories and learn to
become hatqa'li, Singers or shamen. This is the time when preparations are made for the coming growing
season. There are many ceremonies. The women cook the food and take part in certain rituals. The coyotes
February, the fifth month, is called Atsa'biyazh, Baby Eagle. Nol'i, the Hail, is its heart. Its feather is Gahat'ei,
the Rabbit Tracks (star cluster in Canis Major). It is the month of the changeable winds. The First Chief of the
Winds shakes the earth and awakens the sleeping plants, the bear, the lizards and the snakes. The first
plants start to come up. After this month the sacred stories must not be told to the young people. The rabbits
The sixth month, March, is called Wozhchid. It is the month when eaglets chirp in the shell and the antlers
of the deer drop. Its heart is Becha na'chil, Sudden Spring Storms. Its feather is Dede'nii, the mountain
sheep bird. When you see these birds in the canyons it is spring. The mountain sheep drop their young.
Nlchi'dotlish, the Blue Wind, moves over the earth and the first leaves come forth. Ceremonies are held to
bless the fields before the seeds are planted.
April, the seventh month and the beginning of Shiji, summer, is called Da'chil, the month of little leaves. Its
heart is Niyol, Wind-in-Action. Bit'aa, meaning little leaves, is its feather. Rabbits have their young. Nlchi'dilqil,
the Black Wind, shakes the earth and it thunders. The leaves grow bigger and darker in color; and the people
make ready for the planting.
May is the eighth month. It is called Dotso after the All-Wise Fly in the sacred legends. Its heart is
Ayei'ne'denaiyote, meaning a mixture of rain and spring snow. Nlchi'dilqil, the Black Wind, is its feather. The
grass becomes a darkish green. The antelope drop their young. Nlchi'litsui, the Yellow Wind, shakes the earth
and it thunders. The flowers come forth and plants open their leaves. It is
[55. Recorder's note: Atse etso, the Big First One; part of Scorpio.
56. Informant's note: The meaning is not known.
57. Recorder's note: The spelling of this word is not certain.
58. Informant's note: Dede'nii, the mountain sheep bird is the phoebe.]
the time to plant. The early part of this month is called the planting time.
The ninth month, June, is called Yaish jash'chili, When-Few Seeds-Ripen. Its heart is Hado'yazhe, Little Heat.
Jadi'yazhe, Little Antelope, is its feather. The women gather the first edible seeds, and they are used as the
first fruits of the season. They gather the cactus fruit. This is the month of the first rain ceremonies.
July, the tenth month, is called Jas'tso, the great seed ripening. Big Heat, Hado'tso, is its heart. Nltsa'najin,
Dark Streaks of Rain, is its feather. It is the time when people gather many seeds and guard their fields. The
deer drop their young. Dilye'he, the Pleiades, are seen in the early morning; and the fawns have their pattern
on their rumps.
The eleventh month, August, is called Binint A'tso'si, Little Ripening. Its heart is A'tso'si, Light Ripening.
Nltsa'bakha', the Male Rain, is its feather. The ears form on the corn and everything ripens. It is the time when
wild fruits are gathered--the sourberry, the chokecherry, and yucca fruit.
The last month of the year and of summer is September. (See fig. 1.) It is called Binint a'tso, the Harvest
Time. Binint a'tso, Great Ripening, is its heart. Nltsa'baad, the Female Rain, is its feather. Nuts are gathered.
The corn is harvested and taken to the dwellings. The first foodstuffs are stored for the winter. And the
Ceremony of All Blessings is held in thanksgiving.
When everything was in readiness they called Hashche'zhini from Heavy Rock where he lived. He came to
heat the turquoise that was to become the sun. The Turquoise Boy stepped into the sun with his whistle, which
was made from the male reed. This whistle had 12 holes in it; and each time he blew on it the earth would
move one space or month. First Man heated with his crystal the Great White Shell that was to become the
moon. The White Shell Girl stepped into the moon. She carried her whistle, made from the female reed, which
also had 12 holes in it. And whenever she blew upon it she would help move the earth and the tides. These
two Holy Beings were to form the seasons and the months and the days.
The Turquoise Boy asked to have 102 trails; and the White Shell Girl asked to have 100 trails. They were to
cross in the months of March and September. The Sun was to turn back in June, and again in December.
The Turquoise Boy said: "Everything is right so far, but I will not travel for nothing. I will travel if I am paid with
the lives of the people of the earth, all the human beings, the animals which have four legs, the birds and
insects of the air, the fishes and all the people
[59. Informant's note: Some medicine men believe the original plan was for 13 months.]
of the under-water." And then the White Shell Girl repeated the same thing. She also wanted to be paid with
the lives of the living.
After everything was finished and four circles made around the whole, the Coyote, Atse'hashke', went to the
great yei, Hasjelti, and demanded to know why he had not been allowed to have a part in the planning. He said
that the others had tried to keep it a secret, but that he had known all that had happened. This made Hasjelti
very angry, and seeing this, the Coyote ran away. He ran straight to the place where the others were planning
and appeared in their midst. He asked First Man why he had kept everything a secret. He turned to First
Woman and asked her why she had kept this thing from him. Then he told them everything that they had
planned. He said that they had even set the month when he should visit his woman. He warned them that be
had come for the purpose of spoiling their plan.
Atso'haske' drew five lines over other marks he had made in the sand. He told the people that unless they
could guess their proper meanings they would suffer greatly. Now the little Breeze whispered in First Man's ear
and told him what to say. The first line was made of turquoise and it represented the green leaves. The
second line drawn was of white shell. First Man said that he thought of ripe leaves and falling leaves. The third
mark was made of jet; and he said that it stood for the dark, black mountains after the leaves had fallen. The
fourth line was made of white bead. First Man said that it was the snow on the mountains. The fifth mark was of
crystal, and its meaning was of snow and ice on the frozen rivers and lakes. (See fig. 2.)
The Coyote spoke, "All right, everything you have guessed correctly. I thought of all those things as I made
the five marks. By your
FIGURE 2.--Atse'hashke' the Coyote's five marks: 1, The turquoise mark; 2, the white shell mark; 3, the jet
mark; 4, the white bead mark; 5, the crystal mark. (Gerald Nallor obtained this diagram from a medicine man at
[60. Recorder's note: The Arctic Highlanders say: "Will ye have eternal darkness and eternal life, or light and
guessing you have made the summer months six, and the winter months six; and you expect to count by the
changes of the moon. But I will put in some extra days so that the months will not be even. Sometimes frost will
come early, and sometimes it will remain late. First plants will sometimes freeze, and so also will animals.
Sometimes the full moon will come before the end of the month; and at the end of the year you will find that
you have 13 moon periods instead of 12." The Coyote continued. "You have in your minds that it was I who
spoiled your way of living down in the underworlds. It was not my plan."
Then he addressed First Woman. "Why did you keep this sacred thing from me? When you asked me to steal
the Water Buffalo's babies you said that you had suffered many things because of your husband's plan.
Everything was well when I did as you wished. I have kept the female Water Buffalo baby; and by keeping her I
am able to call the male rain and the female rain and all the different clouds and vapors. It is well. I followed
your desires so that the people might have the seasons and the flowers and all that grows from the earth
during the different times of the year. Your plan was for the benefit of those to come. But now I will place the
female child back into the River. Whenever you wish rain you will have to go for the Water Buffalo's girl baby;
and after you have used her power you will have to return her to the River again." He told them where they
would find her; and he said that they would know when they should use her. "Now go ahead with your plans,
Brothers," he said, and with that he left them.
After the Coyote had departed the others spread the blue sky above the earth. In the East they placed a black
pole to hold up the eastern end of the sky. A blue one was planted in the South, a yellow one in the West, and
a white one in the North. A hole was placed in the sky and sealed with water. Around the outer edge of the sky
was placed a white ring, a yellow ring, a blue ring, and a black ring. They formed the border. They were placed
there for the purpose of protecting the sky so that it would remain solid forever. No power on the earth or
above the earth should harm it. And around the four posts they placed the same colors.
After all was finished they placed the sun in the sky, and also, they placed the moon there. And they placed
Dilye'lle, the Pleiades there; and Atse'etso, the Big First One; and the Coyote's Feather, Atse'etso'si, which is
also called the Slender One; and Baalchini, the children of Dilye'ha and Atse'etso'si; and Hastin sakai, The-
Old-Man-with-Feet-Apart; and the Rabbit Tracks, Gahat'ei; and
[61 Informant's note: The Coyote used the word "brother" first and last In all speeches after this.]
Akaisda'hi, Moving-toward-the-Dawn; and Nahokhos bokho, The-Main-Pole-which-Holds-All; and Nahokhos
bakhai, The-Revolving-Male-Warrior-with-his-Bow-and.-Arrows; and his wife, Nahokhos baadi, Who-Carries
THE SUN'S PATH
Above the mountain called Tso dzil there is a square hole in the sky. And this hole in the sky is mirrored in
a lake which lies between the two highest peaks of the mountain. There were three names given to the hole in
the sky: the first is called Tse'an an hi'habetine, the Place Where the Most High Power Came Up; the second
is Sash yota'betine, the Bear's Upper Sky Path; and the third name is Hojon yota'betine, Whose Ways Are
Beautiful's Path. It is said that the Sun stops at this place at midday and eats his lunch; and the place where
he stops and eats is called Nitsi ya'hatsis, The Place Where the Sun Man Has His Lunch and His Horse Eats
Out of a Basket.
THE SKY AND THE EARTH
Then came the Earth Woman, Nahosdzan'esdza'. First Man told her that she was to be the wife of the Sky.
She would face the East, and her husband over her, would face the West. And whenever the Fog covered the
Earth they would know that the Sky had visited Nahosdzan'esdza'.
After that they set the corner posts and stretched the Sky in the four directions.
About twenty chants were sung at this time, and after the first ten sections of the first chant, the Sun Chant,
the Sun began to move
[62. Informant's note (checked with interpreter): Yaya ni'sin is the name of the corner or sky posts. Dilye'he,
the Pleiades. Atse'etso, the forepart of Scorpio. Atse'etso'si, the belt and sword of Orion. Baalchini, the central
double stars in the lower part of the Hyades, Hastin sakai, Orion. The left foot is Rigel and the right foot is
Betelgeuse. Gahat'ei, the star cluster under Canis Major, Akaisda'hi, the Milky Way. Nahokhos bokho, the
North Star. Nahokos bakhai, Ursa Major, the Big Dipper. Nahokos baadi, Cassiopeia, but some medicine men
say Ursa Minor.
Lowie (1908): "According to the naturalistic theory, constellations are apperceived by primitive man as objects
or persons according to the characteristics that appear to him, and an explanatory tale is added" (p. 123); e.
g., The Pleiades--"the Shoshone tale of Coyote and his daughters"; the "Plains' legend of the girl who turns
into a bear, and, after killing the tribesmen, pursues her brothers, who ascend to become a constellation" (the
Dipper) (p. 126).
Tozzer (1908, p. 28); Matthews (1897, p. 80, notes 67-70, pp. 223-224).
Interpreter's notes: 1. The Coyote added his own star, Mai'bizo, which is sometimes called So dondizidi, the No-
Month Star. This is identified as Canopus. 2. The Coyote Man was thrown into the sky, and is known as
Atse'etso'si. The Baalchini are his children by the woman Dilye'he, the Pleiades. Those who know of the
Coyote cult and its weird rites understand incestuous relationship. 3. Dilye'he, the Pleiades, is sometime
represented as the mother-in-law who must not meet her son-in-law, Aste'etso'ei, but must continually run from
him. The myth of the Coyote Man is the origin of the mother-in-law taboo.
61. Informant's note: Tso dzil is Mount Taylor.]
away. The next chant was for the Moon, and after a little time, it also began to move away.
Today different medicine men use different chants and prayers for this ceremony; but the chants of the Sun
and Moon and Earth are always sung. Some say that black magic and evil entered the plan at this time, but
others hold that it was not until later.
Now after the Sun rose in the sky the Dark Cloud that covered the earlier worlds during half periods became
the night. The White Cloud was the dawn, and the sun's light became our day. And along the far horizons
where the first ones used to see the blue and yellow clouds, there appeared the twilight and the false dawn.
The first day-period that the sun was raised in the sky the heat was unbearable. So the Holy Ones stretched
out the four corners of the sky and this raised the sun still higher in the heavens. After they had done this four
times it was like it is today. There was room on the earth for everyone, and the sun's warmth was right for the
growing plants and the animals and the people.
FIGURE 3--Sand Painting of the Earth, (The plan of the earth.) From the top of the mask projects a breath
feather, tied with a white cotton string, the spider's gift. Coral and turquoise ear pendants are Indicated. The
body is dark gray. Borders, mask, neck, etc. The two arms and two legs are kos ischin, triangles set upon one
another and symbolizing forming clouds or cloud terraces. (Sani Ahkeah and Gerald Nallor got this from
medicine men at Shiprock.)
Now it was the same with the earth as it was with the sky. They planned just how the earth should be. (Fig.
3.) They made the face of the earth white, with eyes and nose and mouth. They made earrings of turquoise
for the ears; and for a border they placed a black ring, a blue ring, a yellow ring, and a white ring, which is the
earth's edge. These rings are for the earth's protection; no power shall harm her.
THE MOUNTAINS SACRED TO THE DÃŽNÃ‰
First Man and First Woman formed six sacred mountains from the soil that First Man had gathered from the
mountains in the Third World and kept in his medicine bag. As before they placed Sis na'jin in the East,
Tso dzil in the South, Dook oslid in the West, and Debe'ntsa in the North. They placed a sacred mountain,
which they called Chol'i'i, on the earth; and they made the mountain, Dzil na'odili, around which the people
were to travel.
There were four Holy Boys. These beings First Man called to him. He told the White Bead Boy to enter the
mountain of the East, Sis na' jin. The Turquoise Boy he told to go into the mountain of the South, Tso dzil.
The Abalone Shell Boy entered the mountain of the West, Dook oslid. And into the mountain of the North,
Debe'ntsa, went the Jet Boy.
Now the mountains to the East and South were dissatisfied. The East wanted the Turquoise Boy and the
South wanted the White Bead Boy for their bodies. There was quite a lot of trouble; the mountains would
tremble as though they would fall to pieces, and it was a good time before they were satisfied. The other
mountains were happy in their bodies and there was no trouble between them.
First Man and First Woman called other Holy Beings to them.
They put the Beautiful Mixed Stones Boy and Girl into the sacred mountain called Chol'i'. They put the Pollen
Boy and Grasshopper Girl into Dzil na'odili. They asked the Rock Crystal Girl to go into Sis na' jin. They
put the White Corn Girl into Tso dzil; the Yellow Corn Girl into Dook Oslid; and the Darkness Girl into
After the Holy Beings had entered the Sacred Mountains First Man and First Woman dressed them according
to their positions on the earth.
[64. Informant's note: The Sand Painting of the Earth and the description.
65. Recorder's note: see page 9, ftn. 32, this bulletin.
66. Informant's and interpreter's notes: The White Bead Boy is also called the Dawn Boy and the Rock Crystal
67. Informant's note: The Turquoise Bead Boy is called the Daylight Boy.
68. Informant's note: The Abalone Shell Boy is called the Twilight Boy.
69. Informant's note: the Jet Boy is called the Darkness Boy and the Obsidian Boy.
70. Informant's note: The Pollen Boy and the Grasshopper Girl are also called the Beautiful Goods Boy and
71. Interpreter's note: Early remains near San Francisco Peak not mentioned by the informant, but spoken of
They fastened Sis na' jin to the earth with a bolt of white lightning. They covered the mountain with a blanket
of daylight, and they decorated it with white shells, white lightning, black clouds, and male rain. They placed
the white shell basket on the summit; and in this basket two eggs of the hasbi'delgai, the pigeon. They said
that the pigeons were to be the mountain's feather; and that is why there are many wild pigeons in this
mountain today. And lastly they sent the bear to guard the doorway of the White Bead Boy in the East.
Tso dzil they fastened to the earth with a stone knife. They covered this mountain of the South with a blue
cloud blanket; and they decorated it with turquoise, white corn, dark mists, and the female rain. They placed a
turquoise basket on the highest peak, and in it they put two eggs of the blue bird, doli. Blue birds are Tso dzil's
feather. They sent the big snake to guard the doorway of the Turquoise Boy in the South.
Dook oslid was fastened to the earth with a sunbeam. They covered the mountain of the West with a yellow
cloud. They adorned it with haliotis shell, yellow corn, black clouds, and the male rain, and they called many
animals to dwell upon it. They placed the abalone shell basket on the summit; and in it they placed the two
eggs of the tsidiltsoi, the yellow warbler. These birds were to become its feather. The Black Wind was told to
go to the West and guard the doorway of the Abalone Shell Boy.
They fastened the mountain of the North, Debe'ntsa, to the earth with a rainbow. Over it they spread a blanket
of darkness. They decorated it with bash'zhini', obsidian, black vapors, and different plants and animals. The
basket they placed on its highest peak was of obsidian; and in it they put the two eggs of the chagi, the
blackbird. The blackbirds are the mountain's feather. The lightning was sent to guard the Jet Boy's doorway in
First Man and First Woman fastened the Sacred Mountain Chol'i'i to the earth with a streak of rain. They
decorated it with the pollens, mixed chips of stone precious to them, the dark mists, and the female rain. And
they fastened Dzil na'odili to the earth with the sun's rays; and they decorated it with the beautiful goods of all
kinds, the dark clouds, and the male rain. They left the summits of these mountains free. But some say that
Dzil na'odili was fastened to the earth with Tse'hadahonige, the mirage stone; and those people associate the
Mirage Boy and the Carnelian Girl with this mountain."
All the mountains have their prayers and chants which are called Dressing the Mountains. All the corner posts
have their prayers and chants, as have the stars and markings in the sky and on the earth. It is their custom to
keep the sky and the earth and the day and the night beautiful. The belief is that if this is done, living among
the people of the earth will be good.
[72. Matthews, 1897, pp. 78-79, similar legend.]
One of the Mountain Chants:
For ages and ages the plans have been made.
For ages and ages the plans of the Holy Mountains have been made.
For Sis na' jin, the mountain of the East, the plan was made.
The plan was made in the home of the First Man.
The planning took place on top of the Beautiful Goods.
They planned how a strong White Bead Boy should be formed;
How the White Bead Boy should be formed, and
How the Chief of the Mountain should be made.
How he should be made like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful.
For Tso'dzil, the mountain of the South, the plan was made.
The plan was made in the home of the First Man.
The planning took place on the top of the Beautiful Goods.
They planned how a strong Turquoise Boy should be formed;
How the Turquoise Boy should be formed, and
How the Chief of the Mountain should be made.
How he should be made like the Most-High-Power-Whose-Ways-Are-Beautiful.